Наяда хоррида (Najas horrida «Lake Edward»)

lakeLake Edward
countryDR Congo, Uganda
surface area2,242 km 2
maximum depth112 m
average depth35 m
lake typeNatural
length77 km
width40 km
catchment area26,839 km 2
altitude912 m
volume77 km 3
inflowsNyamugasani, Ishasha, Rutshuru, Rwindi, Ntungwe, Lubilia
outflowsSemliki
shore length308 km
mixing typeMonomictic
residence time4,564 days
frozenNever freezes
originTectonic
average discharge195 m 3 / sec.

Lake Edward Information and Facts

Lake Edward is the smallest of the African Great Rift Lakes, located on the border between the Democratic Republic of Congo and Uganda.

Geography

Lake Edward, located on the Albertine Rift, the Western Branch of the East African Rift, is the fifteenth largest lake on the continent. It is bordered by the high Rwenzori Mountains on the West, less steep grounds with rolling hills on the East, flanked by lowland valley savannahs and swamps on the South, in the valleys of the Rwindi, Rutshuru and Ishasha rivers. The Rwenzori Mountain range rises to 5119 meters at Margherita Peak.

The lake is located between two ecoregions. On the north-western part one can encounter rich montane forests of the Albertine Rift. This area is renowned for many endemic species including the mountain gorillas. The eastern precinct is mostly characterized by rolling hills, forests and savannahs. Some of the main plateaus of the Victoria Basin can also be found here.

There are two national reserves on the shores of the lake. Virunga National Park is located in the Democratic Republic of Congo, including the lake’s North-Western shores, the Semliki Valley and the lowland valley savannahs and swamps of the Rwindi, Rutshuru and Ishasha rivers. Queen Elizabeth National Park is located in Uganda, occupying most of the lake’s North-Eastern shore, and it is recognized for its ecological significance. Kigezi Game Reserve is located on the South-Eastern shores of Lake Edward.

Volcanism

During the past 500 years there were many volcanic activities documented in the region. Two important volcanic fields, the Katwe-Kikorongo and the Bunyaruguru Volcanic Fields lie close to the Kazinga Channel on the North-Western side of the lake, having extensive cones and craters. On the Western shores of the lake the Great Rift Valley towers up to 2000 meters above the lake’s coastline. The Southern and Eastern shores are mainly dominated by flat lava plains.

Lake Edward and its neighbor Lake George supposedly formed one large lake in the past, but the lava from the surrounding fields, the Nyamuragira and the Maya-ya-Moto volcanoes flowed in and separated the two, leaving only the Kazinga Channel between them.

The Katwe-Kikorongo field features not only craters and cones between Lake Edward and Lake George, but is also home to 7 crater lakes. The largest of the seven is the 2.5 kilometers long Lake Katwe, which is located 300 meters’ distance from Lake Edward and is 100 meters deep. The Bunyaruguru field on the other part of the channel has nearly 30 crater lakes; some are even larger than Lake Katwe.

Hydrology

Lake Edward has numerous tributaries such as the Nyamugasani, Ishashar, Rutshuru, Ntungwe and Rwindi rivers. Out of these, the most important is Rutshuru River, considered a Western tributary of the Nile. The rift lake’s main outflow is the Semliki River, which begins near Ishango in the Democratic Republic of Congo on the North-West, meanders to the North and is flanked by the Rwenzori Mountains. Through this river the lake is connected to the Nile river system. Lake George, located on the North-Eastern part of the lake, empties into Lake Edward via the 32-kilometer long Kazinga Channel.

Ecology and Human Settlements

The lake is home to many fish, and because of this fishing is an important activity for locals. The shoreline has a diverse fauna, where chimpanzees, elephants, crocodiles, lions and hippopotamuses can be spotted. Lake Edward and its surroundings are also home to many perennial and migratory bird species.

There are no large settlements along the lake’s shores except for Ishango in the North, part of the Democratic Republic of Congo. Vitshumbi in the Congo part and Mweya and Katwe of Uganda are smaller towns on the coastline. The nearest cities are Kasese on the Ugandan side, located North-East at a distance of 50 kilometers, and Butembo in the Congo, lying 150 kilometers North-West of the lake.

Etymology

The first European to document the lake was Henry Morton Stanley, a Welsh explorer, who visited the lake in 1888 during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. He first thought the lake was part of Lake Albert and named the body of water Beatrice Gulf. He later realized it was a different lake and named it after Prince Albert Edward, who was the Prince of Wales, son of Queen Victoria, and later became Edward VII.

In 1973, Uganda and Zaire renamed the lake Idi Amin Dada after Idi Amin, the Ugandan dictator. After his overthrow in 1979, the lake recovered its initial name, Lake Edward.

Lake Edward

Background Information

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Lake Edward
NASA Landsat photo of Lake Edward and Lake George showing the Kazinga Channel between them
Coordinates0°20′S 29°36′E Coordinates: 0°20′S 29°36′E
Primary inflowsNyamugasani
Ishasha
Rutshuru
Rwindi
Ntungwe
Lubilia
Primary outflowsSemliki River
Catchment area12,096 km²
Basin countriesDemocratic Republic of Congo
Uganda
Max. length77 km
Max. width40 km
Surface area2,325 km 2 (898 sq mi)
Average depth17m
Max. depth112m
Water volume39.5km³
Surface elevation912 m

Lake Edward, Rutanzige or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the African Great Lakes. It is located in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift, on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, with its northern shore a few kilometres south of the Equator. The lake was named by the explorer Henry Morton Stanley in honour of Prince Albert Edward, The Prince of Wales, later to become King Edward VII.

History

Stanley first saw the lake in 1875, and thinking it was part of Lake Albert, named it Beatrice Gulf. On his second visit in 1888 through 1889, he realized that there were two independent lakes, and gave it its current name. In 1973, Uganda and Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) renamed it Lake Idi Amin or Lake Idi Amin Dada after Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. After his overthrow in 1979, the name was changed back to Lake Edward.

Geography

Topography and drainage

Lake Edward lies at an elevation of 920 metres, is 77 km long by 40 km wide at its maximum points, and covers a total surface area of 2,325 km 2 (898 sq mi), making it the 15th-largest on the continent. The lake is fed by the Nyamugasani River, the Ishasha River, the Rutshuru River, the Ntungwe River and the Rwindi River. It empties to the north via the Semliki River into Lake Albert. Lake George to the northeast empties into Lake Edward via the Kazinga Channel.

The western escarpment of the Great Rift Valley towers up to 2000 m above the western shore of the lake. The southern and eastern shores are flat lava plains. The Ruwenzori Mountains lie 20 km north of the lake.

Volcanism

The region shows much evidence of volcanic activity in the last 5000 years. The Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru Volcanic Fields, with extensive cones and craters, lie either side of the Kazinga Channel on the north-west shore of the lake. It is thought that Lakes George and Edward have been joined as one larger lake in the past, but lava from these fields flowed in and divided it, leaving only the Kazinga Channel as the remnant of the past union. To the south, the May-ya-Moto thermally active volcano lies 30 km away, and the Nyamuragira volcano in the western Virunga Mountains lies 80 km south, but its lava flows have reached the lake in the past.

The Katwe-Kikorongo field features dozens of large craters and cones covering an area of 30 km by 15 km between lakes Edward and George, and includes seven crater lakes. The largest of these, the 2.5-kilometre-long Lake Katwe, occupies a crater 4 km across and is separated from Lake Edward by just 300 m of land. The crater is about 100 m deep, and Lake Katwe’s surface is about 40 m lower than Lake Edward’s. It is remarkable that the volcanic origin of this area south-east of the Ruwenzoris was not known until reported by G. F. Scott Elliot in 1894. Stanley visited Lake Katwe in 1889 and noted the deep depression, the salinity of the lake, and a spring of sulphurous water nearby, but failed to connect this to volcanism.

The similarly-sized Bunyaruguru field on the other side of the Kazinga Channel contains about 30 crater lakes, some larger than Katwe.

Settlements

Lake Edward lies completely within the Virunga National Park (Congo) and the Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) and does not have extensive human habitation on its shores, except at Ishango (DRC) in the north, home to a park ranger training facility. About two-thirds of its waters are in the DR Congo and one third in Uganda. Apart from Ishango, the main Congolese settlement in the south is Vitshumbi, while the Ugandan settlements are Mweya and Katwe in the north-east, near the crater lake of that name, which is the chief producer of salt for Uganda. The Mweya Safari Lodge is the main tourist facility, serving both Lake Edward and Lake Katwe. The nearest cities are Kasese in Uganda to the north-east and Butembo in DR Congo, to the north-west, which are respectively about 50 km and 150 km distant by road.

Ecology

Lake Edward is home to many species of fish, including populations of Bagrus docmac, Sarotherodon niloticus, Sarotherodon leucostictus, and over 50 species of Haplochromis and other haplochromine species, of which only 8 are formally described. Fishing is an important activity among local residents. Fauna living on the banks of the lake – including chimpanzees, elephants, crocodiles, and lions – are protected by the national parks. The area is also home to many perennial and migratory bird species.

Lake Edward

Lake Edward
CoordinatesLua error in Module:Coordinates at line 668: callParserFunction: function “#coordinates” was not found.
Primary inflowsNyamugasani
Ishasha
Rutshuru
Rwindi
Ntungwe
Lubilia
Primary outflowsSemliki River
Catchment area12,096 km 2 (4,670 sq mi)
Basin countriesDemocratic Republic of Congo
Uganda
Max. length77 km (48 mi)
Max. width40 km (25 mi)
Surface area2,325 km 2 (898 sq mi)
Average depth17 m (56 ft)
Max. depth112 m (367 ft)
Water volume39.5 km 3 (9.5 cu mi)
Surface elevation912 m (2,992 ft)

Lake Edward, Rutanzige or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the African Great Lakes. It is located in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift, on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda, with its northern shore a few kilometres south of the equator.

Contents

History

Henry Morton Stanley first saw the lake in 1888, during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. The lake was named in honour of Prince Albert Edward, The Prince of Wales, son of then British-monarch Queen Victoria, and later to become King Edward VII.

In 1973, Uganda and Zaire (DRC) renamed it Lake Idi Amin or Lake Idi Amin Dada after Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. After his overthrow in 1979, it recovered its original name.

Geography

Topography and drainage

Lake Edward lies at an elevation of 920 metres (3,020 ft), is 77 kilometres (48 mi) long by 40 kilometres (25 mi) w >[ citation needed ] The lake is fed by the Nyamugasani River, the Ishasha River, the Rutshuru River, the Ntungwe River, and the Rwindi River. [ citation needed ] It empties to the north via the Semliki River into Lake Albert. Lake George to the northeast empties into Lake Edward via the Kazinga Channel.

The western escarpment of the Great Rift Valley towers up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above the western shore of the lake. The southern and eastern shores are flat lava plains. The Ruwenzori Mountains are 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the lake. [1]

Volcanism

The region shows much ev >[1]

The Katwe-Kikorongo field features dozens of large craters and cones covering an area of 30 kilometres (19 mi) by 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) between lakes Edward and George, and includes seven crater lakes. The largest of these, the 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) long Lake Katwe, occupies a crater 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) across and is separated from Lake Edward by just 300 metres (980 ft) of land. The crater is about 100 metres (330 ft) deep, and Lake Katwe’s surface is about 40 metres (130 ft) lower than Lake Edward’s. It is remarkable that the volcanic origin of this area southeast of the Ruwenzoris was not known until it was reported by G. F. Scott Elliot in 1894. Stanley visited Lake Katwe in 1889 and noted the deep depression, the salinity of the lake, and a spring of sulphurous water nearby, but he failed to connect this to volcanism. [2]

The similarly-sized Bunyaruguru field on the other s >[ citation needed ]

Settlements

Lake Edward lies completely within the Virunga National Park (Congo) and the Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) and does not have extensive human habitation on its shores, except at Ishango (DRC) in the north, home to a park ranger training facility. About two-thirds of its waters are in the DRC and one third in Uganda. Apart from Ishango, the main Congolese settlement in the south is Vitshumbi, while the Ugandan settlements are Mweya and Katwe in the northeast, near the crater lake of that name, which is the chief producer of salt for Uganda. The nearest cities are Kasese in Uganda to the northeast and Butembo in the DRC to the northwest, which are respectively about 50 kilometres (31 mi) and 150 kilometres (93 mi) distant by road. [3]

Ecology

Lake Edward is home to many species of fish, including populations of Bagrus docmac, Sarotherodon niloticus, Sarotherodon leucostictus, and over 50 species of Haplochromis and other haplochromine species, of which only 25 are formally described. Fishing is an important activity among local residents. Fauna living on the banks of the lake – including chimpanzees, elephants, crocodiles, and lions – are protected by the national parks. The area is also home to many perennial and migratory bird species.

Lake Edward

Information and Facts of Lake Edward

Lake Edward Uganda is the tiniest of the African Great Rift Lakes, situated on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. The lake’s northern shore is just few miles south of the equator.

The first European to see the lake was Henry Morton Stanley, a Welsh explorer. He visited the lake in 1888 during the Relief Expedition of Emin Pasha. Stanley first believed the lake was part of Lake Albert and named it, Beatrice Gulf. He afterwards comprehended that it was a different lake and baptized it after Prince Albert Edward, the then Prince of Wales and son of Queen Victoria and later on became Edward VII.

In 1973, Uganda and Zaire renamed the lake Idi Amin Dada after former president, Idi Amin. The lake later recovered its original name, Lake Edward following Amin’s overthrow in 1079. Lake Edward and Lake George are the two water bodies enjoined by Kazinga Channel, a 40-km water stream that runs through Queen Elizabeth National Park. Kazinga channel is famous for its boat cruise safaris by tourists who free the park for wildlife tours.

The Geography of Lake Edward

This lake is located on the Albertine Rift, the Western Division of the East African Rift and is the fifteenth biggest lake on the African continent. It is adjoined on the West by the high Rwenzori Mountains, less precipitous grounds with undulating hills on the East, bordered by low-lying valley grasslands and swampland on the South, in Rwindi valleys, Rutshuru and Ishasha Rivers.

Edward is sited among two Eco regions and on the north-western fragment; one can see the rich montane woodlands of the Albertine Rift. This area is well-known for many widespread types such the mountain gorillas. The eastern precinct is typically pigeonholed by rolling hills, forests and plains. Some of the main uplands of the Victoria Basin are also found here.

The lake has got two national reserves on its shores, that is, the Virunga National Park is in the Democratic Republic of Congo, comprising of the North-Western shores of the lake, the Semuliki Valley and the low valley grasslands and marshlands of Rutshuru, Rwindi and Ishasha rivers. The lake’s North-Eastern shores boarder Queen Elizabeth National Park, a tourist attraction in Uganda recognized for its biological importance. Kigezi Game Reserve is placed on the South-Eastern shorelines of Lake Edward.

Volcanism

In the period of the past 500 years, several volcanic activities were recorded in the region. The two vital volcanic arenas, the Katwe-Kikorongo and the Bunyaruguru Volcanic Fields are close to a 32 kilometer long Kazinga Channel on the North-Western margin of the lake, with wide-ranging conduits and craters. On the lake’s Western shores, the Great Rift Valley is elevated at about 2000 meters above its shoreline. The Eastern and Southern shores are mostly conquered by flat lava grasslands.

Lake Edward and Lake George which neighbor each other were alleged to have been one larger lake in the past, but the lava that flowed from the nearby fields; the Nyamuragira and Maya-ya-Moto volcanoes flowed in and divided the two, leaving Kazinga Channel connecting the two.

Katwe-Kikorongo field is characterised by mainly craters and cones between Lake Edward and Lake George as well as being a home to seven crater lakes. The largest of the seven is Lake Katwe, which is 2.5 kilometres long and positioned 300 meters from Lake Edward. Lake Katwe has a depth of 100 meters. The Bunyaruguru field has close to 30 crater lakes, some of which are bigger than Lake Katwe.

The Lake’s Water (Hydrology)

The lake has got dozens of tributaries like the Ishasha, Rutshuru, Nyamugasani, Ntungwe and Rwindi rivers. Of these, the most significant is Rutshuru River, well-thought-out of being the Western stream of River Nile. The lake’s major outflow is the Semuliki River that begins near Ishango in Congo in the North-West, strolls to the North, flanked by the Rwenzori Mountains. Via this river, the lake is linked to River Nile water system. Lake George which is on the North-Eastern side of Lake Edward flows into it (Edward) through Kazinga Channel.

People Settlements and Ecology

Lake Edward is a home to lots of fish and therefore fishing is a vital activity for local residents. The water’s edge has got diverse animals like elephants, crocodiles, lions, buffaloes and hippopotamuses can be seen. The lake and its environs are also home to various perennial and wandering birds.

The lake shores have got no larger human settlements with the exception of Ishango in the North and section of the DR Congo. Vitshumbi, in Congo plus Mweya and Katwe on the Ugandan side are the smaller towns on the shoreline.

See Related Attractions in the Park

Kazinga Channel is a 32-kilometre long water channel that connects Lake George in the east to Lake Edward in the west. The channel is among the most paramount geographical features in Queen Elizabeth National Park with a magnificent view of the most vital wildlife in the park.

Kyambura Gorge – The Home Chimps Kyambura Gorge is found in the far eastern side of Queen Elizabeth National Park in south western Uganda is roughly 1 km across and about 100 meters deeper. The gorge also known as the ‘Valley of Apes’ is drained by River Kyambura. Its a habitat to chimpanzees, other primate species and birds as well.

Ishasha Sector The Ishasha Sector found in the Southern part of Queen Elizabeth National Park is well-known for the amazing Tree-Climbing lions. Lions that hang in the big fig trees are an exceptional attraction and a key highlight of any Uganda safari tour this large national park. The Ishasha lions relax in the tree branches as they also spy on their preys from above.

Kasenyi Plains Kasenyi Plains are part of Queen Elizabeth National Park. It is at these plains that the biggest percentage of game drive Uganda Safaris are carried out from. The plains are found on the western shores of the spectacular Lake George adjoining to the Kazinga Channel onto which the water makes a convergence.

Mweya Peninsula Mweya Peninsula is found within Queen Elizabeth National Park on the northeastern shores of Lake Edward. The peninsula is the corner point where Kazinga Channel joins the lake. This beautiful piece of land surrounded by water either sides is approximately 66 kilometres by road from Kasese town.

Lake George Lake George found in western Uganda covers 250 square kilometres. The lake with an estimated depth of 2.4 meters is part of Africa’s Great Lakes system. Though the lake itself is not considered a Great Lake. This water body was named after a British Prince, George who later became King George V.

Maramagambo Forest Maramagambo Forest is found in Bushenyi district and is a part of Queen Elizabeth National Park. The forest is prominently associated with the Bat Cave and the Python. The forest is bounded by two crater lakes, Lake Nyamasingiri and Lake Kyasanduka and is a home to the red-tailed monkeys, chimps and Bates’ pygmy antelope (Neotragus batesi) among others.

Lake Edward

Lake Edward, Rutanzige or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the African Great Lakes. It is located in the Albertine Rift, the western branch of the East African Rift, on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and Uganda, with its northern shore a few kilometres south of the equator.

Lake Edward
Coordinates 0°20′S 29°36′E Primary inflowsNyamugasani
Ishasha
Rutshuru
Rwindi
Ntungwe
Lubilia Primary outflowsSemliki RiverCatchment area12,096 km 2 (4,670 sq mi)Basin countriesDemocratic Republic of Congo
UgandaMax. length77 km (48 mi)Max. width40 km (25 mi)Surface area2,325 km 2 (898 sq mi)Average depth17 m (56 ft)Max. depth112 m (367 ft)Water volume39.5 km 3 (9.5 cu mi)Surface elevation912 m (2,992 ft)

History

Henry Morton Stanley first saw the lake in 1888, during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. The lake was named in honour of Prince Albert Edward, The Prince of Wales, son of then British-monarch Queen Victoria, and later to become King Edward VII.

In 1973, Uganda and Zaire (DRC) renamed it Lake Idi Amin or Lake Idi Amin Dada after Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. After his overthrow in 1979, it recovered its former name.

In 2014, the lake was the center of an oil dispute. SOCO international entered the premises of the Virunga National Park wherethe lake is situated to prospect for oil. However villagers and workers who attempted to stop the oil company from entering the area were beaten up and even k > [1]

Geography

Topography and drainage

Lake Edward lies at an elevation of 920 metres (3,020 ft) , is 77 kilometres (48 mi) long by 40 kilometres (25 mi) wide at its maximum points, and covers a total surface area of 2,325 square kilometres (898 sq mi) , making it the 15th-largest on the continent. [ citation needed ] The lake is fed by the Nyamugasani River, the Ishasha River, the Rutshuru River, the Ntungwe River, and the Rwindi River. [ citation needed ] Lake George to the northeast empties into it via the Kazinga Channel. Lake Edward empties to the north via the Semliki River into Lake Albert.

The western escarpment of the Great Rift Valley towers up to 2,000 metres (6,600 ft) above the western shore of the lake. The southern and eastern shores are flat lava plains. The Ruwenzori Mountains are 20 kilometres (12 mi) north of the lake. [2]

Volcanism

The region shows much evidence of volcanic activity over the last 5000 years. The Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru Volcanic Fields, with extensive cones and craters, lie either side of the Kazinga Channel on the northwest shore of the lake. It is thought that Lakes George and Edward used to be joined as one larger lake, but lava from these fields flowed in and divided it, leaving only the Kazinga Channel as the remnant of the past union. To the south lies the May-ya-Moto thermally active volcano 30 kilometres (19 mi) away, and the Nyamuragira volcano in the western Virunga Mountains lies 80 kilometres (50 mi) south, but its lava flows have reached the lake in the past. [2]

The Katwe-Kikorongo field features dozens of large craters and cones covering an area of 30 kilometres (19 mi) by 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) between lakes Edward and George, and includes seven crater lakes. The largest of these, the 2.5 kilometres (1.6 mi) long Lake Katwe, occupies a crater 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) across and is separated from Lake Edward by just 300 metres (980 ft) of land. The crater is about 100 metres (330 ft) deep, and Lake Katwe’s surface is about 40 metres (130 ft) lower than Lake Edward’s. It is remarkable that the volcanic origin of this area southeast of the Ruwenzoris was not known until it was reported by G. F. Scott Elliot in 1894. Stanley visited Lake Katwe in 1889 and noted the deep depression, the salinity of the lake, and a spring of sulphurous water nearby, but he failed to connect this to volcanism. [3]

The similarly-sized Bunyaruguru field on the other s >[ citation needed ]

Settlements

Lake Edward lies completely within the Virunga National Park (Congo) and the Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) and does not have extensive human habitation on its shores, except at Ishango (DRC) in the north, home to a park ranger training facility. About two-thirds of its waters are in the DRC and one third in Uganda. Apart from Ishango, the main Congolese settlement in the south is Vitshumbi, while the Ugandan settlements are Mweya and Katwe in the northeast, near the crater lake of that name, which is the chief producer of salt for Uganda. The nearest cities are Kasese in Uganda to the northeast and Butembo in the DRC to the northwest, which are respectively about 50 kilometres (31 mi) and 150 kilometres (93 mi) distant by road. [4]

Ecology

Lake Edward is home to many species of fish, including populations of Bagrus docmak , Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis leucostictus, and over 50 species of Haplochromis and other haplochromine species, of which only 25 are formally described. Fishing is an important activity among local residents. Fauna living on the banks of the lake – including chimpanzees, elephants, crocodiles, and lions – are protected by the national parks. The area is also home to many perennial and migratory bird species.

2018 Lake Edward Skirmish

On July 6, 2018 there was a naval skirmish between the two nations of Uganda and Democratic Republic of the Congo on Lake Edward. This skirmish began as a result of Congolese naval vessels being sent to investigate reports of the Ugandan navy apprehending several Congolese fishing vessels, and civilians. This clash resulted in the deaths of one person, and the wounding of three others. [5] [6]

Early reports by local Congolese officials claim that seven were killed in the clash, however, this has not been backed up by either national government. [7] On July 9, North Kivu official Muhindo Kyakwa claimed twelve Congolese fishermen had been killed in the clashes. [8]

Lake Edward

2008/9 Schools Wikipedia Selection. Related subjects: African Geography

NASA Landsat photo of Lake Edward and Lake George showing the Kazinga Channel between them

Lake Edward
Coordinates
Lake typeRiver
Primary outflowsSemliki River
Kazinga Channel
Catchment area12,096 km²
Basin countriesDemocratic Republic of Congo
Uganda
Max. length77 km
Max. width40 km
Surface area2,325 km²
Average depth17m
Max. depth112m
Water volume39.5km³
Surface elevation912 m

Lake Edward or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the Great Lakes of Africa. It is located in the western Great Rift Valley, on the border between the Democratic Republic of the Congo and Uganda, with its northern shore a few kilometers south of the Equator. The lake was named by the explorer Henry Morton Stanley in honour of Prince Albert Edward, The Prince of Wales.

History

Stanley first saw the lake in 1875, and thinking it was part of Lake Albert, named it Beatrice Gulf. On his second visit in 1888 through 1889, he realized that there were two independent lakes, and gave it its current name. In the 1970s and 1980s, Uganda and Zaire (Democratic Republic of the Congo) renamed it Lake Idi Amin or Lake Idi Amin Dada after Ugandan dictator Idi Amin. After his overthrow in 1979, the name was changed back to Lake Edward.

Geography

Topography and drainage

Lake Edward lies at an elevation of 920 metres, is 77 km long by 40 km wide at its maximum points, and covers a total surface area of 2,325 km² (the 15th largest on the continent). The lake is fed by the Nyamugasani, the Ishasha, the Rutshuru, and the Rwindi rivers. It empties to the north via the Semliki River into Lake Albert. Lake George to the northeast empties into Lake Edward via the Kazinga Channel.

The western escarpment of the Great Rift Valley towers up to 2000 m above the western shore of the lake. The southern and eastern shores are flat lava plains. The Ruwenzori Mountains lie 20 km north of the lake.

Volcanism

The region shows much evidence of volcanic activity in the last 5000 years. The Katwe-Kikorongo and Bunyaruguru Volcanic Fields, with extensive cones and craters, lie either side of the Kazinga Channel on the north-west shore of the lake. It is thought that Lakes George and Edward have been joined as one larger lake in the past, but lava from these fields flowed in and divided it, leaving only the Kazinga Channel as the remnant of the past union. To the south, the May-ya-Moto thermally active volcano lies 30 km away, and the Nyamuragira volcano in the western Virunga Mountains lies 80 km south, but its lava flows have reached the lake in the past.

The Katwe-Kikorongo field features dozens of large craters and cones covering an area of 30 km by 15 km between lakes Edward and George, and includes seven crater lakes. The largest of these, the 2.5-kilometre-long Lake Katwe, occupies a crater 4 km across and is separated from Lake Edward by just 300 m of land. The crater is about 100 m deep, and Lake Katwe’s surface is about 40 m lower than Lake Edward’s. It is remarkable that the volcanic origin of this area south-east of the Ruwenzoris was not known until reported by G. F. Scott Elliot in 1894. Stanley visited Lake Katwe in 1889 and noted the deep depression, the salinity of the lake, and a spring of sulphurous water nearby, but failed to connect this to volcanism.

The similarly-sized Bunyaruguru field on the other side of the Kazinga Channel contains about 30 crater lakes, some larger than Katwe.

Settlements

Lake Edward lies completely within the Virunga National Park (Congo) and the Queen Elizabeth National Park (Uganda) and does not have extensive human habitation on its shores, except at Ishango (DRC) in the north, home to a park ranger training facility. About two-thirds of its waters are in the DR Congo and one third in Uganda. Apart from Ishango, the main Congolese settlement in the south is Vitshumbi, while the Ugandan settlements are Mweya and Katwe in the north-east, near the crater lake of that name, which is the chief producer of salt for Uganda. The Mweya Safari Lodge is the main tourist facility, serving both Lake Edward and Lake Katwe. The nearest cities are Kasese in Uganda to the north-east and Butembo in DR Congo, to the north-west, which are respectively about 50 km and 150 km distant by road.

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