Данио Хикари (Danio sp. «Hikari»)

ДАНИО ХИКАРИ (Danio sp. «Hikari»)

Данио хикари в природе обитает в бассейне реки Тенассерим (Tenasserim) протекающей в южной части Мьянмы (Бирма). Рыб можно встретить в местах со слабым течением, в протоках, проходящих сквозь тропические заросли. Впервые на рынке данные рыбки появились в 2002 г. Поначалу их считали одной из разновидностей данио керри (Brachydanio kerri), но позже, в результате анализов ДНК, проведенных в Америке, этих рыб выделили в самостоятельный вид. Рыбки не требовательные и могут быть рекомендованы для содержания начинающим аквариумистам.

Самцы Danio sp. «Hikari» имеют желто-зеленую окраску тела и плавников. По телу проходят продольные желто-синие полосы. Самки преимущественно голубой окраски с менее отчетливыми продольными полосами. Максимальный размер рыб составляет 5,5-6,5 см.

Данио хикари мирные рыбы, что делает их идеальными соседями для других миролюбивых рыб живущих в общем аквариуме. Поскольку хикари не предъявляют особых требований к химическому составу воды, их можно содержать совместно со многими популярными среди аквариумистов рыбами, включая мелких карповых, а также тетр, радужных рыбок, сомов и гольцов.

Содержать данио хикари нужно группой, состоящей как минимум из 8-10 особей в аквариуме объемом от 100 л. Содержание рыб в таком количестве сделает их менее пугливыми и будет способствовать их более естественному поведению, а самцы, в результате конкуренции между собой за внимание самок, будут демонстрировать более яркую окраску.

Наиболее эффектно рыбы смотрятся с густо засаженном жестколиственными растениями аквариуме, с темным субстратом. На дне желательно разместить большие камни и коряги. Аквариум следует накрывать крышкой, поскольку эти рыбы весьма проворные и способны, выпрыгивая из воды, протискиваться даже в небольшие промежутки.

Параметры воды: температура 18-26°C, жесткость dH 1-12°, кислотность pH 6,5-7,5. Требуется фильтрация, аэрация и еженедельная подмена 1/3 части аквариумной воды свежей. Так же в аквариуме нужно создать небольшой ток воды, например, направив отводящий раструб фильтра воды вдоль задней стенки.

В природе данио хикари питается насекомыми и их личинками. В аквариуме эти рыбы непритязательные к кормам и будут есть большинство продуктов. Сухие корма хорошего качества могут служить основной диетой, но в то же время рыб регулярно нужно подкармливать живыми и замороженными кормами: дафнией, артемией, мотылем и др. В этом случае рыбы будут демонстрировать более яркую окраску.

Подобно большинству рыб семейства карповых, данио хикари периодически нерестится в аквариуме. Небольшое количество мальков выклевывается из сохранившейся икры без вмешательства аквариумиста. Однако, если вы хотите сохранить поголовье мальков, требуется контролировать процесс нереста рыб.

В нерестовом аквариуме объемом 30-40 л размещают на дне сепараторную сетку, и густо засаживают яванским мхом. Нерестовик наполовину заполняют водой температурой 25-26°C. Далее в нерестовик помещают 1-2 пары половозрелых рыб. Нерест стимулируют добавлением небольшого количества холодной воды каждые несколько часов, подменяя в сутки до 50% воды.

После нереста производителей отсаживают. Икра инкубируется на протяжении 24-36 часов, а спустя 2-3 дня мальки начинают плавать и питаться.

Стартовым кормом для мальков служат науплии артемий и порошкообразные корма предназначенные для мальков рыб.

Продолжительность жизни данио хикари в аквариумных условиях составляет 3-4 года.

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Hikari Danio

Hikari Yellow Danio, Hikari Blue Danio

The Hikari Danio is quite a novelty in the hobby as this danio species can be either blue or yellow!

The Hikari Danio is truly a sensation, though it has risen out of obscurity only in the past few years after being introduced in 2002/2003. This newer species of danio was discovered in Burma (Myanmar) and is still awaiting its scientific name. It appears very similar to the Blue Danio Danio kerri and was first thought to be a subspecies. However, recent DNA testing in the United States has shown them to be genetically distinct, so this species is currently known simply as Danio sp. “hikari.”

Perhaps the crowning achievement of the Hikari Danio is that it is one of few freshwater fish whose sexes have distinctly different colors. In fact, the colors are so different that the sexes are often erroneously referred to as separate species. Though they are sometimes referred to as the Hikari Yellow Danio and the Hikari Blue Danio, these two fish are actually the same species.

The Hikari Yellow Danio is the male of this species and has a yellow tinge to the fins and body. The Hikari Blue Danio is the female and will be noticeably bluer in color. These small fish grow to just about 2 inches (5 cm) in an aquarium. These danios are not overly flashy but can be just as impressive as the next fish. They make a fun and lively display with the added benefit of having the mix of colors.

Like all danios, they are robust, fairly easy to keep, and prolific breeders. They can adapt to a reasonable range of water temperatures and conditions. These qualities make them an excellent choice for both beginning and more experienced aquarists. These schooling fish should be kept in groups of 6 or more. A school of these small, lively fish is well suited to a smaller aquarium but will do best in about a 20-gallon size.

These cyprinids are a generally pleasant community fish. They can be housed with most similarly sized community fish that have similar behaviors. They will do well with other lively tankmates. Just make sure that the danio will not be eaten and that the other fish aren’t startled by swift movement. They can also jump with surprising gusto, so keep a tight covering on your aquarium.

For Information on keeping freshwater fish, see:
Freshwater Aquarium Gu >

  • Aquarist Experience Level: Beginner
  • Size of fish – inches: 2.0 inches (5.00 cm)
  • Minimum Tank Size: 15 gal (57 L)
  • Temperament: Peaceful
  • Aquarium Hardiness: Very Hardy
  • Temperature: 68.0 to 80.0° F (20.0 to 26.7&deg C)
  • My Aquarium – Enter your aquarium to see if this fish is compatible!
  • Beginner Fish – Freshwater fish for beginners
  • Community Fish – Peaceful Freshwater fish
  • Hardy Fish – Hardy Freshwater fish
  • Similar size fish – Fish that are 1 inch bigger or smaller
  • Coldwater Fish – Looking for cold water fish? (65 °)

Habitat: Distribution / Background

The Hikari Danio Danio sp. “hikari” is native to Burma (Myanmar), Asia. These cyprinids are a fairly recent discovery and were introduced into the hobby in 2002/2003. They were first collected from the Tanintharyi River drainage, which is a tributary of the Tenasserim River system in southern Myanmar.

This fish doesn’t have a scientific name at this time. It is currently known simply as Danio sp. “hikari.” It was initially thought to be a subspecies of the Blue Danio Danio kerri . However, recent DNA testing in the United States has shown them to be genetically distinct. It is not yet evaluated or listed on the IUCN Red List of Endangered Species.

Not a lot is known about this fish, but in nature, they are thought to inhabit the marginal zones of streams and small rivers where the water is quiet and slow. Their main diet in the wild probably consists of small insects, worms, and crustaceans.

  • Scientific Name: Danio sp. hikari
  • Social Grouping: Groups
  • IUCN Red List: NE – Not Evaluated or not listed

The attractive Hikari Danio has a rather compact body and a barbel at the end of each lip. These small fish reach lengths of about 2 inches (5 cm) in an aquarium. A typical lifespan is about 3 to 5 years with proper care, and possibly longer.

These are one of the few freshwater fish whose sexes have distinctly different colors. This leads to the sexes often being erroneously referred to as separate species. The Hikari Yellow Danio, the male of this species, has a yellowish green tinge to the body and fins. The Hikari Blue Danio, the female, is noticeably bluer.

  • Size of fish – inches: 2.0 inches (5.00 cm)
  • Lifespan: 5 years – An average lifespan is about 3 – 5 years, though they can live longer with proper care.

Fish Keeping Difficulty

The Hikari Danios are fairly hardy fish and recommended for beginning aquarists. They readily accept many foods and adapt to most tank conditions. They will feed on just about anything that is offered, as long as it floats at the surface where they can readily consume it.

  • Aquarium Hardiness: Very Hardy
  • Aquarist Experience Level: Beginner

Foods and Feeding

Since they are omnivorous, these fish will eat most prepared or live aquarium fare, though the food does need to float at the surface. A good balance of food is necessary to keep this fish’s coloration strong. As with all danios, these fish are quite active and have high nutrient requirements, so select a flake food that will provide for their needs. These fish will do best when offered food several times a day, but offer what they can eat in 3 minutes or less at each feeding. If you feed only once per day, provide what they can eat in about 5 minutes.

  • Diet Type: Omnivore
  • Flake Food: Yes
  • Tablet / Pellet: Yes
  • Live foods (fishes, shrimps, worms): Some of Diet
  • Vegetable Food: Some of Diet
  • Meaty Food: Some of Diet
  • Feeding Frequency: Several feedings per day – Offer only what they can consume in 3 minutes or less with multiple feedings per day.

These fish are not exceptionally difficult to care for provided their water is kept clean. At least 25 to 50% of the tank water should be replaced once a month. If the tank is densely stocked, 20 to 25% should be replaced weekly or every other week. Aquariums are closed systems, and regardless of size, all need some maintenance. Over time, decomposing organic matter, nitrates, and phosphate build up and water hardness increases due to evaporation. Be mindful during maintenance that these fish will jump, so keep a close eye on them.

  • Water Changes: Monthly – If the tank is densely stocked, water changes should be done every other week.

Hikari Danios are good survivors and will readily adapt to most aquarium conditions, within reason. Though a school of danios can be kept in a smaller aquarium, they will do best in about a 20-gallon size. Provide good filtration and some current. Also, these fish can swim and jump with surprising gusto, so keep a tight covering on the tank.

These fish are most effectively displayed in tanks with subdued lighting and a dark, fine gravel or sand substrate. They like a well-planted aquarium, so keep a variety of plants to help these danios feel safe. Dense, tall plantings around the sides and back are great, but leave plenty of open water in the middle of the tank for swimming.

  • Minimum Tank Size: 15 gal (57 L) – Though a school can be kept in a smaller aquarium, they appreciate ample swimming space and will do best in about a 20-gallon size.
  • Suitable for Nano Tank: Yes
  • Substrate Type: Any
  • Lighting Needs: Moderate – normal lighting
  • Temperature: 68.0 to 80.0° F (20.0 to 26.7&deg C)
  • Range ph: 6.0-8.0
  • Hardness Range: 2 – 18 dGH
  • Brackish: No
  • Water Movement: Moderate
  • Water Region: All – They will move about the tank a lot but will usually swim in the middle.
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These fish have a good temperament, but they will sometimes go looking for trouble. Although generally peaceful, these danios will engage in small squabbles amongst themselves or even involving other tankmates. Hikari Danios will play actively and often wrongly assume that other fish want to join in. Larger fish may be irritated by them and smaller fish may be frightened. This fish is very lively, so don’t keep them with any fish that prefer a calm environment. Danios create an inherently fast-paced environment which many fish may not tolerate, so select tankmates well. The best companions are other similarly sized, lively fish and bottom-dwellers like plecostomus and loaches.

  • Temperament: Peaceful – They are generally peaceful fish, but don’t be surprised to witness small squabbles amongst these danios, possibly involving other tankmates.
  • Compatible with:
    • Same species – conspecifics: Yes – They must be kept in a school of at least 6, though 8 to 10 is even better.
    • Peaceful fish (): Safe – This fish is very lively and active, which might irritate fish that prefer a calm environment.
    • Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Semi-Aggressive (): Threat
    • Large Aggressive, Predatory (): Threat
    • Slow Swimmers & Eaters (): Safe – This fish is very lively and active, which can stress fish with a calmer nature.
    • Shrimps, Crabs, Snails: Safe – not aggressive
    • Plants: Safe

Sex: Sexual differences

Hikari Danios are among the easiest fish to sex. The males are distinctly yellow in color with turquoise patches. Females are silvery blue with turquoise patches.

Breeding the Hikari Danio is not difficult. They are egg scatterers and exhibit no parental care for the young. Two fish will form a breeding pair, which they often keep for life. If you wish to retain the young, the breeding tank should be empty except for a 2 inch layer of large glass marbles, 1/2 to 1 inch in diameter. Add the female to the tank and let her settle for about a day before adding the male.

After they are both in the tank, if conditions are favorable, the female will release her eggs in open water, and the male will fertilize them. The eggs will sink to the bottom and fall through the marbles, out of their parents’ reach. Fry will emerge after about 7 days. At that time or before, the parents should either be removed or kept constantly well fed. See the description of breeding techniques in Breeding Freshwater Fish: Barbs. Also, see Fish Food for Fry for information about types of foods for raising the young.

Hikari Danios are fairly hardy, and disease is not usually a problem in a well-maintained aquarium. They are primarily susceptible to Ich if good water quality is not provided. With any additions to a tank, such as new fish, plants, substrates, and decorations, there is a risk of introducing disease. Properly clean or quarantine anything you want add to an established tank so as not to upset the balance.

These fish are very resilient, but knowing the signs of illness, and catching and treating them early, makes a huge difference. An outbreak of disease can often be limited to just one or a few fishes if dealt with at an early stage. The best way to proactively prevent disease is to give your fish the proper environment and a well-balanced diet. The more closely their environment resembles their natural habitat, the less stress the fish will have, making them healthier and happier. A stressed fish is more likely to acquire disease. For information about freshwater fish diseases and illnesses, see Aquarium Fish Diseases and Treatments.

The Hikari Danio is increasingly available but still rather uncommon. It is moderately inexpensive and can be purchsed in pet stores, on the internet, or through mail order.

References

  • Animal-World References: Freshwater Fish and Plants.
  • Dick Mills, Aquarium Fish (101 Essential Tips), DK (Dorian Kinglsey) Adult, 2004.
  • Dick Mills, Derek Lambert,Aquarium Fish Handbook, Quatro Inc., 2004.

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Brachydanio sp. ‘hikari’

Hikari ‘Danio’

Etymology

Brachydanio: from the Ancient Greek βραχύς (brakhús), meaning ‘short’, and Dhani, a Bengalese vernacular term for small, minnow-like cyprinids.

Classification

Order: Cypriniformes Family: Cyprinidae

Distribution

Collected from the Tanintharyi River drainage, a tributary of the Tenasserim River system in Tanintharyi (formerly Tenasserim) Division, southern Myanmar.

Habitat

No details are available but expect it to inhabit quieter, slower-moving sections of streams and minor rivers.

Maximum Standard Length

Aquarium SizeTop ↑

An aquarium with base dimensions of 120 ∗ 30 cm or equivalent should be the smallest considered.

Maintenance

Looks particularly effective in a heavily-planted arrangement with a darker substrate, and may appear paler in sparsely-decorated set-ups.

We suggest maintaining it in a well-planted aquarium or set-up designed to resemble a flowing river or stream, with a substrate of variably-sized rocks and gravel and some large water-worn boulders.

Additional powerhead(s) or filter outlets can be used to provide flow but torrent-like conditions should be avoided since small danionins tend to occupy calmer stretches and marginal zones in nature.

Driftwood roots, branches and aquatic plants, with hardy genera such as Microsorum, Bolbitis or Anubias ideal since they can be grown attached to the décor, can also be added.

The aquarium must have a very tightly-fitting cover as members of this genus are accomplished jumpers and can fit through surprisingly small gaps.

Water Conditions

Temperature: 18 – 26 °C

Hardness: 18 – 215 ppm

Probably preys on insects and their larvae in nature. In the aquarium it’s largely an unfussy feeder and will accept most foods.

A good quality dried product or two can be used as the staple diet but this should be supplemented with regular meals of small live and frozen fare such as bloodworm, Daphnia, Artemia, etc. for the fish to show the best colouration and conditioning.

Behaviour and CompatibilityTop ↑

This species is very peaceful indeed making it an ideal resident of the well-furnished community tank.

Since it places no special demands in terms of water chemistry it can be combined with many of the most popular fish in the hobby including other small cyprinids as well as tetras, livebearers, rainbowfishes, anabantoids, catfishes and loaches, though its adult size must be taken into consideration.

It’s a schooling species by nature and really should be kept in a group of at least 8-10 specimens.

Maintaining it in decent numbers will not only make the fish less nervous but result in a more effective, natural-looking display while males will also exhibit their best colours as they compete with one other for female attention.

Sexual Dimorphism

Males have an overall yellowish-green body colour which extends into the fins whereas females are predominantly blue.

Reproduction

Like most cyprinids this species is an egg-scattering spawner that exhibits no parental care.

That is to say when the fish are in good condition they will spawn often and in a densely-planted, mature aquarium it is possible that small numbers of fry may start to appear without human intervention.

However if you want to increase the yield of fry a slightly more controlled approach is required.

The adult group can still be conditioned together but one or more small, say 30-40 litre, containers should also be set up and half-filled with water.

Much of the available space should be filled with a suitable spawning medium such as Java moss, wool mops or a spawning grid.

The water should be of slightly acidic to neutral pH with a temperature towards the upper end of the range suggested above.

An internal power filter can be added initially and this should be positioned so that the flow is directed down the full length of the tank.

When the adult fish are well-conditioned and the females appear full of eggs one or two pairs should then be introduced to each container.

Spawning can be initiated by adding small amounts of cool water every few hours in such a way that the tank is gradually topped up and feeding small amounts of live and frozen foods, or by performing a large (50-60%) water change in the evening.

Several spawning events will probably occur before a female is spent of eggs.

The adults will eat any they find and are best removed once eggs are spotted.

At this point the power filter (if using) should be switched for a mature sponge-type unit in order to avoid fry being sucked into the mechanism.

Incubation in is temperature-dependant to an extent but usually takes between 24-36 hours with the young free-swimming a few days later.

Initial food should be Artemia nauplii or similar.

NotesTop ↑

This probable undescribed species first became available to aquarists in 2002, with males and females marketed as ‘Danio sp. hikari yellow’ and ‘D. sp. hikari blue’, respectively.

Subsequent DNA testing in the United States revealed them to be the same species and genetically distinct from the very similar B. kerri.

It can be told apart as the central body (P) stripe always extends into the caudal-fin whereas in B. kerri it terminates at the caudal peduncle.

Only a single population of B. kerri was sampled in the study meaning this could still turn out to be a particularly colourful form of that species, however.

In recent years it’s become commonplace to refer to the stripes on the body and fins of danionins as follows:

P stripe: or “pigment stripe” is the central, dark, lateral stripe on the body which extends into the caudal-fin in some species. Stripes above it are numbered P+1, P+2, etc. and those beneath P-1, P-2, P-3.
A stripe: the central stripe on the anal-fin; the proximal stripe (above it) is A+1 and the distal stripe (beneath) A-1.
D stripe: The submarginal dorsal-fin stripe.

Following Fang (2003) Brachydanio spp. are characterised by the presence of an A stripe on the anal-fin and two or more P stripes on the caudal, plus some internal characteristics such as enlarged nasal lamellae.

The genus has undergone some significant taxonomic reshuffling in recent years following the publication of a series of phylogenetic studies.

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Older, molecular, phylogenies tended to agree that it represented a monophyletic group consisting of two major clades; the ‘Danio devario‘ group containing the larger, deeper-bodied species and the ‘D. rerio‘ clade comprising the smaller, slimmer fish.

However in 2003 Fang conducted a more detailed study based on morphological characters which included members of other related genera, and the results suggested for the first time that the genus Danio as previously considered represents a polyphyletic grouping, i.e., not all members derived from a single common ancestor.

The genus name Devario was suggested for the larger species with Danio being applied only to the smaller fish (with the exception of the type species, D. dangila which can grow to around 89 mm SL). Recent molecular studies by Mayden et al. (2007) and Fang et al. (2009) resulted in further changes, with the latter study considering the genus Danio to be composed of three subclades. These were subsequently split into distinct genera by Kottelat (2013), as follows:

The former species D. erythromicron, D. margaritatus, D. choprae and D. flagrans are grouped together in the revalidated genus Celestichthys Roberts, 2007. These exhibit unique body patterning consisting of vertical bars (C. erythromicron, C. choprae, C. flagrans) or light spots (C. margaritatus) and possess either very short barbels or none at all.

The genus Danio contains only the type species, D. dangila, separated on the basis of its larger size and the shape of the caudal-fin, which in adults is only slightly emarginate or even truncate in shape, a feature it shares only with Tinca tinca (the common tench) among other cyprinids.

The remaining species, of which B. rerio is thought to be the most ancient, are included in the revalidated genus Brachydanio Weber & de Beaufort, 1916.

Hikari danio

Hikari Danio
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Order:Cypriniformes
Family:Cyprinidae
Genus:Danio
Species:n/a
Binomial name
n/a
n/a

A new species of danio recently discovered in Burma, first exported 2002/2003. It is still awaiting a scientific name, and is temporarily referred to as Danio sp. Hikari. Has blue and yellow varieties with the yellow being male and the blue female. It appears to be closely related to Danio kerri It has been speculated that this may be a subspecies of this fish, however this does not seem to be the case.

  • Maximum length: 2 inches (5 cm)
  • Colors: Blue, silver, yellow
  • Temperature preference: 20-25 degrees Celsius
  • pH preference: 6 to 7
  • Hardness preference: Soft to medium
  • Salinity preference: Low to medium
  • Compatibility: Good but fast like most danios
  • Life span: Typically 2 to 3 years
  • Ease of keeping: Moderate
  • Ease of breeding: Moderate to hard

See also

  • Danios
  • Danionins
  • Danio kerri

External links

References

Wikimedia Foundation . 2010 .

Look at other dictionaries:

Hikari — (光; ひかり), light in Japanese, may refer to:*Hikari (fish food), a brand of flake style fish food *Hikari (name), people and characters with the name *Hikari (Shinkansen), a train service running on the Tōka >Wikipedia

Danio — rerio zebra danio Scientific >Wikipedia

Danionin species disambiguation — In the last few decades, many Danionin species have been moved into different genera, in some cases repeatedly, similarly some species have been synonymised with other species and even in some cases later unsynonymised, all of which has caused a… … Wikipedia

List of Danionin species — In the last few decades, many Danionin species have been moved into different genera, in some cases repeatedly, similarly some species have been synonymised with other species and even in some cases later unsynonymised, all of which has caused a… … Wikipedia

Danionin Common Name Disambiguation — Since 2004 many new Danionins have been discovered which do not yet have scientific names and many other species, previously known only to the scientific fraternity, have become available in Aquarist Shops. This has predictably led to total… … Wikipedia

List of Danionin species by common name — Since 2004 many new Danionins have been discovered which do not yet have scientific names and many other species, previously known only to the scientific fraternity, have become available in Aquarist Shops. This has predictably led to total… … Wikipedia

Fish Gu >

Danionins

Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family:Cyprinidae
Subfamily:Danioninae
Genus:Chela, Danio, Danionella, Devario, Esomus, Inlecypris, Microrasbora, Parachela, Sundadanio.
Species of DanioninDanio
Danio albolineatus
Danio abolineatus var pulcher
Danio abolineatus var tweediei
Danio choprae
Danio dangila
Danio feegradei
Danio kerri
Danio kyathit var spotted
Danio kyathit var striped
Danio meghalayensis
Danio nigrofasciatus
Danio roseus
Danio rerio
Danio rerio var frankei
Danio sp “Hikari”
Danio sp aff kyathit
Danio sp “KP01”
Danio sp “TW01”
Danio sp “TW02”
Danio sp “TW03”

Danionella
Danionella mirifica
Danionella translucifida

Devario
Devario acrostomus
Devario acuticephala
Devario aequipinnatus
Devario affinis
Devario annandalei
Devario apogon
Devario apopyris
Devario assamensis
Devario browni
Devario chrysotaeniatus
Devario devario
Devario fangfangae
Devario fraseri
Devario gibber
Devario horai
Devario interruptus
Devario kakhienensis
Devario laoensis
Devario leptos
Devario manipurensis
Devario Maetangensis
Devario malabaricus
Devario naganensis
Devario neilgherriensis
Devario pathirana
Devario peninsulae
Devario quangbinhensis
Devario regina
Devario salmonata
Devario shanensis
Devario sondhii
Devario spinosus
Devario strigillifer
Devario suvatti
Devario yuensis
Devario sp “Broken Line”

Chela
Chela cachius
Chela caeruleostigmata
Chela dadiburjori
Chela fasciata
Chela laubuca
Chela maassi

Esomus
Esomus ahli
Esomus altus
Esomus barbatus
Esomus caudiocellatus
Esomus danricus
Esomus lineatus
Esomus longimanus
Esomus malabaricus
Esomus malayensis
Esomus manipurensis
Esomus metallicus
Esomus thermoicos

Inlecypris
Inlecypris jayarami
Inlecypris auropurpurea

Microrasbora
Microrasbora erythromicron
Microrasbora gatesi
Microrasbora kubotai
Microrasbora nana
Microrasbora rubescens
Microrasbora sp “galaxy”

Parachela
Parachela cyanea
Parachela hypophthalmus
Parachela ingerkongi
Parachela maculicauda
Parachela oxygastroides – Glass Fish
Parachela siamensis
Parachela williaminae

Sundadanio
Sundadanio axelrodi
Tanichthys (not strictly a danionin)
Tanichthys albonubes
Tanichthys micagemmae

The Danionins are small minnow-type fish belonging to the family Cyprinidae, mostly in the genera Danio and Devario (Some species were previously in the genus formerly known as Brachydanio). They are native to the fresh waters of southeast Asia, but many species are brightly coloured, and are available as aquarium fish worldwide. Danios tend to have horizontal stripes and long barbels, Devarios tend to have vertical bars and short rudimentary barbels, if barbels are present at all. A number of the species have only been recently discovered, in remote inland areas of Laos and Myanmar and do not yet have scientific names. The phrase Danionins is used to describe all the Danio species which include fish within the genera Danio, Devario, Chela, Esomus, Inlecypris, Parachela and probably also Danionella, Microrasbora and Sundadanio. Tanichthys is often regarded as a Danionin however there is no scientific basis for this. The Danionins can be classed as a subfamily Danioninae which is increasingly gaining credibility as a distinct subfamily from Rasboriniae within the Cyprinidae family.

All Danionins are egg scatters and breed in the rainy season in the wild. They are generally active swimmers occupying the top half of a tank and are carnivores, living on insects and small crustaceans in the wild, although they will eat just about any type of aquarium food. They will not, however, generally eat plants or algae.

Although boisterous and liable to chase each other and other fish, they are good community fish and will not generally attack each other or other fish, although they occasionally nip fins, more by accident than design and will, like most fish, eat eggs and any fish small enough to fit into their mouths.

They are best kept in a tank long enough for their active swimming, preferably with a current from a power filter (or at least airstone) as they often live in fast flowing streams in the wild. Generally this also results in them being sub tropical with temperatures of 20 to 22 degrees Celsius (low seventies degrees Fahrenheit) often being fine, however they are good jumpers and a tight fitting lid is recommended.

Contents

Common names given to Danionin species

Since 2004 many new Danionins have been discovered which do not yet have scientific names and many other species, previously known only to the scientific fraternity have become available in Aquarist Shops. This has predictably led to total confusion as to the naming of some fish, with some species having up to five different common names in use and some common names bein used for up to four different species. As a result all Danionin common names known to be in use are listed on a separate page:

Species, listed in order of scientific name, categorised by genus

Danios

The species remaining in the Danio genus comprise most of the Danionins familiar to aquarists. They have two pairs of long barbels and are generally characterised by horizontal stripes (with the exception of the Glowlight Danio and Black Barred Danio which have vertical bars. In size they range from 4 cm/ 1.75 in) to 15 cm/ 6 in).

Frequently used common names are given for reference, however if the common name you are looking for does not appear, click on it on the section above for more details

  • Danio albolineatus – Pearl Danio -(6 cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio abolineatus var pulcher – Blue-Redstripe Danio – (5 cm/ 2 in)
    Danio abolineatus var tweediei – Kedah Danio – (5 cm/ 2 in)
    Danio choprae – Glowlight Danio – (4 cm/ 1.25 in)
    Danio dangila – Moustached danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Danio feegradei – Yoma Danio – (8 cm/ 3 in)
    Danio kerri – Blue Danio – (5 cm/ 2 in)
    Danio kyathit var spotted – Ocelot Danio – (6 cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio kyathit var striped – Orange Finned Zebra Danio – (6 cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio meghalayensis – Meghalaya Danio – (9 cm/ 4 in)
    Danio nigrofasciatus – Spotted Danio – (4 cm/ 1.25 in)
    Danio roseus – Rose Danio – (6cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio rerio – Zebra danio -(6 cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio rerio var frankei – Leopard Danio -(6 cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio sp “Hikari” – Hikari Danio – (5 cm/ 2 in)
    Danio sp aff kyathit – Redfin Danio – (6 cm/ 2.5 in)
    Danio sp “KP01” – Burma Zebra Danio – (9 cm/ 3 in)
    Danio sp “TW01” – Black Barred Danio – (8 cm/ 3 in)
    Danio sp “TW02” – Burma Danio – (4 cm/ 1.25 in)
    Danio sp “TW03” – Panther Danio – (5 cm/ 2 in)

Devarios

The Devarios comprise some Danionins familiar to aquarists. Generally (but not all) larger fish than Danios, they have short barbels (if present at all) and generally have deeper bodies than Danios with species having vertical stripes present (as well as horizontal). In size they range from 5 cm/ 2 in) to 15 cm/ 6 in).

  • Devario aequipinnatus – Giant Danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Devario affinis – False Giant Danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Devario apogon
    Devario assamensis – Red Mirik Danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Devario annandalei – Annandale’s Giant Danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Devario browni – Browns Danio (8 cm/ 3.5 in)
    Devario chrysotaeniatus Gold Striped Danio – (8 cm/ 3 in)
    Devario devario – Bengal Danio or Sind Danio (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Devario interruptus
    Devario Maetangensis – Fire Bar Danio – (7 cm/ 2.75 in)
    Devario laoensis – Laos Giant Danio (8 cm/ 3 in)
    Devario malabaricus – Malabar Danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
    Devario pathirana – Barred Danio – (6 cm/ 2 in)
    Devario regina – Queen Danio – (13 cm/ 5 in)
    Devario shanensis – Shan Danio (7 cm/ 2.75 in)
    Devario strigillifer
    Devario sp “Broken Line” – Blue Moon Danio – (15 cm/ 6 in)
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Little known Devarios

Little is known about the following Devario species, however there is some information about them at the Fishbase Devario index(Fishbase: Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. July 2005 version)

  • Devario acrostomus
    Devario acuticephala – Sharp Headed Danio
    Devario apopyris
    Devario fangfangae
    Devario fraseri – Fraser’s Danio
    Devario gibber
    Devario horai
    Devario kakhienensis – Kakhyen Hills Danio
    Devario leptos
    Devario manipurensis
    Devario naganensis – Naga Hills Danio
    Devario neilgherriensis – Neilgherry Hills Giant Danio
    Devario peninsulae
    Devario quangbinhensis
    Devario salmonata
    Devario sondhii – Sondhi’s Danio
    Devario spinosus
    Devario suvatti
    Devario yuensis

Tanichthys

Not strictly speaking a Danionin but widely regarded as one, this genus has its own Wikipedia page. Click on Tanichthys for more information about these fish.

  • Tanichthys albonubes – White Cloud Mountain Minnow – (6 cm/ 2 in)
    Tanichthys micagemmae – Vietnamese Cardinal Minnow – (5 cm/ 1.75 in)

Esomus

A genus comprising the Flying Barbs, they are closely related to the Danio genus and are distinctive for their extremely long barbels.

  • Esomus ahli
    Esomus altus
    Esomus barbatus – South Indian Flying Barb
    Esomus caudiocellatus
    Esomus danricus – Indian Flying Barb
    Esomus lineatus – Striped Flying Barb
    Esomus longimanus – Mekong Flying Barb
    Esomus malabaricus
    Esomus malayensis – Malayan Flying Barb
    Esomus manipurensis
    Esomus metallicus – Striped Flying Barb
    Esomus thermoicos

Chela

A closly related genus to Devario

  • Chela cachius – Neon Hatchet Fish
    Chela caeruleostigmata – Leaping Barb
    Chela dadiburjori – Dadio
    Chela fasciata
    Chela laubuca – Indian Glass Barb
    Chela maassi

Parachela

Closely related to Chela and Devario

  • Parachela cyanea
    Parachela hypophthalmus
    Parachela ingerkongi
    Parachela maculicauda
    Parachela oxygastroides – Glass Fish
    Parachela siamensis
    Parachela williaminae

Inlecypris

A genus closely related to Devario comprising two smallish barred fish from Lake Inle in Myanmar.

  • Inlecypris jayarami
    Inlecypris auropurpurea

Other Danionin genera

The following genera of tiny fish are thought to be Danionins closely related to Danio and Esomus, but too little is known about them to confirm this.

Danionella

A genus comprising two tiny, recently discovered fish, Danionella translucida is the smallest known freshwater fish

  • Danionella mirifica (1.4 cm/ 0.75 in)
    Danionella translucida (1.1 cm/ 0.5 in)
    Several other as yet unnamed Danionella species have very recently been discovered.
Microrasbora

The genus name means “small Rasbora”, however these fish appear to be more closely related to the danios than rasboras. There has been speculation that Microrasbora erythromicron may be transferred to the Danio genus but this now seems unlikely

  • Microrasbora erythromicron
    Microrasbora gatesi
    Microrasbora kubotai
    Microrasbora nana
    Microrasbora rubescens
    Microrasbora sp “galaxy” – Galaxy Rasbora
Sundadanio

A genus with only one fish within, the genus was created after the axelrodi species was transferred from the Rasbora. Axelrodi resembles a tiny Rasbora

Danionins renamed or wrongly identified

  • The following genera that previously described certain danionins are no longer valid:
    • Allodanio
    • Brachydanio
    • Danioides
    • Daniops
    • Eustira
    • Parabarilius
    • Paradanio
    • Rambaibarnia
  • All Devario species were formerly in the genus Danio. In addition Devario acuticephala, Devario shanensis and Devario sondhii were also regarded at one time as being in the former genus Brachydanio
  • Certain fish were formerly described within Danionin genera and subsequently moved to their correct genus. Where such fish were moved to the genus: Achielognargus, Acanthorhodeus, Barilius, Opsarius, Oxygaster, Paralaubuca, Rhodeus, Salmostoma & Securicula, such fish are not now deemed to be Danionins.
  • Allodanio ponticulus, now renamed Barilius ponticulus
  • Aphyocypris pooni, “Garnet”, now deemed a synonym of Tanichthys albonubes (White Cloud Mountain Minnow)
  • Brachydanio acuticephala, now renamed Devario acuticephala
    Brachydanio albolineatus, , now renamed Danio albolineatus (Pearl Danio)
    Brachydanio choprae, now renamed Danio choprai (Glowlight Danio)
    Brachydanio frankei, now deemed a subspecies of Danio rerio (Danio rerio var frankei)
    Brachydanio jayarami, now renamed Inlecypris jayarami
    Brachydanio kerri, now renamed Danio kerri (Blue danio)
    Brachydanio nigrofasciatus, now renamed Danio nigrofasciatus (Spotted Danio),
    Brachydanio pulcher, now deemed a subspecies of Danio albolineatus (Danio abolineatus var pulcher)
    Brachydanio rerio, now renamed Danio rerio (Zebra Danio),
    Brachydanio shanensis, now renamed Devario shanensis
    Brachydanio sondhii, now renamed Devario sondhii
    Brachydanio tweediei, now deemed a subspecies of Danio albolineatus (Danio abolineatus var tweediei)
  • Danio aeqipinnulus, now deemed a synonym of Devario aequipinnatus (Giant Danio)
    Danio albolineata, now deemed a synonym of Danio albolineatus (Pearl Danio)
    Danio analipunctatus, now deemed a synonym of Danio nigrofasciatus (Spotted Danio)
    Danio deyi, now deemed a synonym of Danio dangila (Moustached Danio)
    Danio interrupta, now deemed a synonym of Devario interruptus
    Danio jayarami, now renamed Inlecypris jayarami
    Danio lineatus, now deemed a synonym of Danio rerio (Zebra Danio)
    Danio lineolatus, now deemed a synonym of Devario aequipinnatus (Giant Danio)
    Danio menglaensis, now renamed Opsarius koratensis
    Danio menoni, now renamed Chela laubuca
    Danio micronema, now deemed a synonym of Devario malabaricus (Malabar Danio)
    Danio monshiensis, now renamed Barilius monshiensis,
    Danio ponticulus, now renamed Barilius ponticulus
    Danio rheinarddti, now renamed Rhodeus rheinardti
    Danio salmonatus, now deemed a synonym of Devario salmonata
    Danio stoliczae, now deemed a synonym of Danio albolineatus (Pearl Danio)
  • Daniops myersi, now renamed Devario laoensis
  • Devario chankaeinsis, Khanka Spiny Bitterling, now renamed Achielognargus chankaeinsis
    Devario asmussii Russian Bitterling, now renamed Acanthorhodeus Asmussii
  • Chela anastoma, now deemed a synonym of Chela cachius
    Chela anomalurus, now renamed Oxygaster anomalura
    Chela argentea, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma acinaces
    Chela atpar, now deemed a synonym of Chela cachius
    Chela bacaila, now renamed Salmostoma bacaila
    Chela barroni, now renamed Paralaubuca barroni
    Chela boopis, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma boopis
    Chela clupeoides, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma balokee
    Chela dadidurjori, now deemed a synonym of Chela dadiburjori
    Chela dadyburjori, now deemed a synonym of Chela dadiburjori
    Chela dadydurjori, now deemed a synonym of Chela dadiburjori
    Chela diffusa, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma acinaces
    Chela fasciatus, now deemed a synonym of Chela fasciata
    Chela horai, now renamed Salmostoma horai
    Chela hypophthalmus, now renamed Chela hypophthalmus
    Chela gora, now renamed Securicula gora
    Chela johorensis, now deemed a synonym of Parachela oxygastroides
    Chela maassi, now deemed a synonym of Chela maasi
    Chela maculicauda, now renamed Parachela maculicauda
    Chela megalolepsis, now deemed a synonym of Parachela oxygastroides
    Chela mouhoti, now deemed a synonym of Chela caeruleostigmata
    Chela nicholsi, now deemed a synonym of Paralaubuca sinensis
    Chela oxygaster, now deemed a synonym of Oxygaster anomalura
    Chela oxygastroides’, now deemed a synonym of Parachela oxygastroides
    Chela panjabensis, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma punjabensis
    Chela phulo, now renamed Salmostoma phulo
    Chela punjabensis, now renamed Salmostoma punjabensis
    Chela pointoni, now renamed Oxygaster pointoni
    Chela quangbinhensis, now renamed Devario quangbinhensis
    Chela sardinella, now renamed Salmostoma sardinella
    Chela siamensis, now renamed Parachela siamensis
    Chela sladoni, now renamed Salmostoma sladoni
    Chela stigmabrachium, now renamed Paralaubuca stigmabrachium
    Chela teekanee, now deemed a synonym of Salmostoma balokee
    Chela untrahi, now renamed Salmostoma untrahi
  • Inlecypris auropurpureus, now renamed Inlecypris auropurpurea

Hikari danio

Hikari Danio
Scientific classification
Kingdom:Animalia
Phylum:Chordata
Class:Actinopterygii
Order:Cypriniformes
Family:Cyprinidae
Genus:Danio
Species:n/a
Binomial name
n/a
n/a

A new species of danio recently discovered in Burma, first exported 2002/2003. It is still awaiting a scientific name, and is temporarily referred to as Danio sp. Hikari. Has blue and yellow varieties with the yellow being male and the blue female. It appears to be closely related to Danio kerri It has been speculated that this may be a subspecies of this fish, however this does not seem to be the case.

  • Maximum length: 2 inches (5 cm)
  • Colors: Blue, silver, yellow
  • Temperature preference: 20-25 degrees Celsius
  • pH preference: 6 to 7
  • Hardness preference: Soft to medium
  • Salinity preference: Low to medium
  • Compatibility: Good but fast like most danios
  • Life span: Typically 2 to 3 years
  • Ease of keeping: Moderate
  • Ease of breeding: Moderate to hard

See also

External links

References

This entry is from Wikipedia, the leading user-contributed encyclopedia. It may not have been reviewed by professional editors (see full disclaimer)

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